Masters


Title: Effect of Aqueous Extracts and Bioactive Compounds of Coffee (Coffea Arabica) on Probiotic Bacteria Growth
Author: AMANDA LUISA SALES
Conclusion Paper: DISSERTATION
Abbreviation: SALES, A. L.
Date of Defense: 02/08/2017
Abstract: Prebiotic effect is the beneficial physiological outcome that arises from the modulation of the composition and/or activity of the intestinal microbiota through the metabolism of a nondigestible compound. Nondigestible or partially digestible compounds such as polysaccharides (galactomannan and type 2 arabionogalactan) andchlorogenic acids in Coffea arabica have been studied recently, as an enhancing agent for beneficial microbiota growth. Among important bioactive compounds in coffee are caffeine and trigonelline, which showed selective antimicrobial effect in vitro. The aim of this dissertation was systematically evaluate the prebiotic potential of aqueous extracts of Coffea arabica species in different roasting degrees, as well as its bioactive compounds present in these extracts. Regular and decaffeinated soluble coffee extractsand the bioactive compounds chlorogenic acids (CGA), trigonelline (TG), caffeine (CAF), galactomannan and type 2 arabinogalactan (AG), were separately incorporated into a modified culture medium in diferent concentrations. The growth of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (GG), L. acidophilus LA-5 (LA) Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173010 (BA) and B. animalis subsp. lactis BB12 (BB12), and the non-probiotic Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (E. coli). After 48h of incubation, regular coffee extracts increased the count of Lactobacillus species (~ 4.43 log CFU/mL) and Bifidobacterium species (~ 4.34 log CFU/mL), regardless of roasting degree and concentration. No differences were found in the growth of the strains in the presence of decaffeinated coffee extracts, when compared to the base medium without the coffee extracts. However, in relation to bioactive compounds, the growth of GG in 50mg of caffeine (1.64 log CFU/mL). For the Bifidobacterium strains, the greatest growth was observed for BA in 400mg of CGA (1.87 log CFU/mL); 50, 100, 200, 800mg of GM (~ 0.28 log CFU/mL), 50 and 400mg of AG (~ 0.16 log CFU/mL). For BB12, the greatest growth were in 200 and 400 mg of CGA (~1.62 log CFU/mL) and 200, 400 and 800 mg of GM (~ 0.60 log CFU/mL) and in all concentrations of AG (~ 0.76 log CFU/mL). Differently from the results found for the probiotic bacteria, none of the coffee extracts and bioactive compounds stimulated E. coli growth. The present dissertation results suggest that the coffee bioactive compounds can improve the growth of health-beneficial microorganisms that occur naturally in the intestinal tract, or used as probiotics, thus exerting a potencial prebiotic effect.
Keywords: Coffee;prebiotics;probiotics;galactomannans;type 2 arabinogalactans;chlorogenic acids;caffeine;trigonelline

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Title: Circulating Fatty Acids and Lipoproteins Levels in Pregnant Adults with and without Pre-Pregnancy Obesity: Relationship with the Profile of Fatty Acids of the Cord Blood and Anthropometric Parameters of the Newborn
Author: MARCELLE DE ALMEIDA SARAIVA
Conclusion Paper: DISSERTATION
Abbreviation: SARAIVA, M. A.
Date of Defense: 08/05/2017
Abstract: Although the effects of obesity on metabolic changes specific of gestation are not well understood, it’s known that the exacerbation of alterations in lipid metabolism due to maternal obesity might result in changes in lipoprotein and fatty acid (FA) of circulation, both maternal and fetal, affecting the anthropometric parameters of the newborns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord blood from eutrophic and pre gestational obese adult mothers and its relationship with anthropometric parameters of newborn. Study included pregnant women, with classification of the pre gestational nutrition status according to BMI maternal obesity grades 1 and 2 (n = 9) and eutrophic (n = 15), attended at the School Maternity of UFRJ / RJ. Maternal and newborn anthropometric data were collected through medical records . Samples of maternal blood were collected in the first (T1) and third (T2) gestational period, for analysis of maternal lipoproteins and for extraction of lipids, as well as umbilical cord. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS 19 software and was considered statistically significant when p≥0.05. Our results showed that in women who began prenatal obesity with the average concentrations in FA linolenic T1 and serum triglycerides , LDL, VLDL in T2 were lower than in eutrophic pregnant women. Whereas the content of LCPUFA: EPA T1 and T2; AA T2; Σn3 T2 were higher in obese pregnant women. In conclusion, pre-gestational obesity influenced circulating in maternal of EFA, not reflecting, however, on the FA profile in the blood of newborns, either on the anthropometric measurements at birth.
Keywords: Pre-pregnancy obesity, Fatty acids, Lipoproteins, Cord blood, Birth weight

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Title: Effects of Quercetine and Crisine and its Association on the Feasibility and Progression of the Cell Cycle Iin Tumor Lines of Breast MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231
Author: PATRICIA SEVERO RAMOS
Conclusion Paper: DISSERTATION
Abbreviation: RAMOS, P.S.
Date of Defense: 05/05/2017
Abstract: Breast cancer is the second type of cancer that most affects women worldwide and presents estimates of 57,960 incident cases for the biennium 2016/2017. Flavonoids quercetin, found in apples and onions, and chrysin, found in honey and propolis, play a role as an anticancer agent, however its precise mechanism of action is not completely elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the action of these flavonoids, isolated and in association, in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and the non-tumor MCF-10A cells culture. Cellular viability analysis by MTT assay was performed. It was observed that, according to the IC50 values, chrysin was the most cytotoxic flavonoid for all the cell lines (MCF-7 = 232.5 µM, MDA-MB-231 = 170.0 µM), with the non-tumoral being the most sensitive to the treatment (110.3 µM). The combination of the compounds significantly reduced cell viability in the MCF-7 cell line when preincubated with 10 μM quercetin for 1 hour (IC50 = 60.6 µM). The Combination Index showed that the association had a synergistic effect in the tumoral cell lines and antagonistic effect in the non-tumoral one (MCF-7 = 0.447, MDA-MB-231 = 0.725, MCF-10A = 1.797). It was observed that the associated treatment presented greater selectivity for the tumor cell lines than for the non-tumoral (MCF-10A/MCF-7 = 1.63, MCF-10A/MDA-MB-231 = 2.29). The association generated a larger number of apoptotic cells in the tumor lines. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that the associated treatment caused cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. Among the caspases observed by immunoblotting in this study, it was not possible to define a probable pathway for induction of cell death, and further studies need to be performed with the objective of verifying which other apoptotic pathways may be altered by the combination of the bioactive compounds used in this dissertation. Taken together, these results show the effect of the association of quercetin and chrysin on the induction of cell death by apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, inferring its potential as a possible tool for the treatment of breast cancer.
Keywords: Breast cancer, quercetin, chrysin, apoptosis, association

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Title: Food Response to Intracerebroventricular Infusion of Anorexigenics and ObRb and FOXO 1 Expressions in Hypothalamus of Female Rats Under Intermittent Food Restrictions
Author: CARLOS MARCELO CONCHA VILCA
Conclusion Paper: DISSERTATION
Abbreviation: VILCA, C. M. C.
Date of Defense: 27/04/2017
Abstract: We aimed to analyze the food response to anorexigenic infusion and expression of ObRb and FOXO 1 in the hypothalamus of non-obese females Wistar in intermittent food restriction (IFR). The rats (n = 60), with 67-days of life, were divided for 6 weeks in the groups: Control (C, chow and water ad libitum) and Restricted 3 (R3) and 5 (R5), maintained with access to water and 2 days to 50% of group C food intake, followed by 3 or 5 days of free chow respectively. For the injections of vehicle (saline 0.9%) and anorexigenic agents (insulin, serotonin and leptin) the rats were submitted to stereotaxical surgery to receive intracerebroventricular cannula (i.c.v). Both restricted groups showed lower cumulative food intake in the experimental period versus C, without difference in the intake after feeding cycle. The R3 group presented higher consumption in the 3 days and R5 in 2 days subsequent to the food restriction versus C. We observed lower body weight gain in the R5 group. Both restricted groups did not respond to icv injection of anorexigenic agents and showed lower hypothalamic expression of ObRb mRNA, but without change in FOXO 1 mRNA expression. We concluded that IFR in non-obese female Wistar interrupted the response to important anorexigenic agents, promoted post-restriction hyperphagia and affected the initial steps of the hypothalamic leptin pathway. We suggest that IFR can determine impair in hypothalamic anorexigenic regulation and obesogenic parameters.
Keywords: Intermittent food restriction, hypothalamics anorexigenics, ObRb, FOXO 1, binge food

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Title: The Relationship Between the Programa Bolsa Família Ownership and the Feeding Practices of the Resident Families at the Municipality ff Duque De Caxias – RJ.
Author: VIVIANE DOS ANJOS MARESI
Conclusion Paper: DISSERTATION
Abbreviation: MARESI, V. A.
Date of Defense: 21/02/2017
Abstract: The present dissertation entitled “A relação entre a titularidade do Programa Bolsa Família (PBF) e as práticas alimentares de famílias beneficiárias residentes no Município de Duque de Caxias-RJ” is a qualitative study of the descriptive kind. This study is part of a larger research Project entitled “Pobreza Extrema, Insegurança Alimentar e Políticas Públicas: Estudo Longitudinal de Famílias Atendidas pelo Programa Bolsa Família no Município de Duque de Caxias”. The aim of the present study was to understand the relationship between the PBF ownership (men/woman) and the feeding practices of beneficiary families. Besides, it had as a purpose to analyze the perceptions on the PBF and ownership and to know the PBF beneficiary families feeding practices and the elements which contribute to its construction. It was utilized the Depth Hermeneutics described by Thompson (2002) as the methodological reference, and the Content Analysis Thematic as the analytical reference, proposed by Bardin (2011) and modified by Minayo et al. (2012). Data construction was made through semistructured interviews with the use of a guiding protocol and observations. Five men and five women PBF ownerships resident at Campos Elíseos district, municipality of Duque de Caxias, were interviewed from November 2015 and April 2016. The interviewed men expressed the necessity to justify their ownership rights for having children of their own or sickness demonstrating a lack of knowledge for having their rights to PBF. For woman the ownership meant security, autonomy and freedom, mainly for those who depended on their husband or exhusband’s incomes before. The PBF income was usually administrated by women, even in the cases in which the ownership were the men. In the presence of a woman in the family it was her who administrated it. Woman expressed the understanding that the benefit should be addressed to her because it would be utilized mainly to attend to their children needs and other related basic maintenances, as the acquisition of food chiefly, in addition to clothes, medical consulting, internet and school material. It is concluded in this sense that the PBF influenced the feeding practices of the beneficiary families in what regard to the acquisition of food. However, the subject relationship with the feeding practices were not modified, in other words, men and woman had different but complementary roles in what regard to the feeding practices, gender role models are constructed socially and in the family environment. Generally speaking, the men had the responsibility to provide incomes to the acquisition of food, and the woman had the responsibility to buy, prepare and distribute food.
Keywords: Feeding, Culture, Qualitative Research, Government Programs, Programa Bolsa Família

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Title: Changes in Plasma Concentrations of Vitamin D Throughout Pregnancy and it Association with Depressive Symptoms
Author: AMANDA CAROLINE CUNHA FIGUEIREDO
Conclusion Paper: DISSERTATION
Abbreviation: FIGUEIREDO, A. C. C.
Date of Defense: 21/02/2017
Abstract: Pregnancy is characterized by biological, physical and social changes. During this period occurs physiological adaptations in the vitamin D metabolism and can also be a vulnerable period for the increase of depressive symptoms. The objectives of this study were: 1. To investigate if vitamin D status in early pregnancy influences the longitudinal changes of plasma concentrations of 1,25 dihydrovitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] during pregnancy. 2. To investigate the association between plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D) and 1,25(OH)2D with the occurrence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. This study consists of a prospective cohort conducted at a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample consisted of women with low pregnancy risk, age between 20 and 40 years, followed at 5th-13th, 20th-26th, 30th-36th gestational weeks. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were collected during first, second and third trimester of pregnancy and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. The vitamin D status was categorized according to concentrations of 25(OH)D nmol/L by the Institute of Medicine and the Endocrine Society Practice Guidelines. Depressive symptoms were measured at each pregnancy trimester by Edinburg Postnatal Depressive Scale (cutoff ≥13). Statistical analyses included dispersion measures of sample and longitudinal analysis [longitudinal linear mixed-effects models (objective 1) and random intercept logistic regression model (objective 2)]. Covariates were selected as potential confounders based on biological plausibility and bivariate analysis with the outcome (objective 1) and directed acyclic graph (DAG) (objective 2). The prevalence of 25(OH)D <75, <50 and <30 nmol/L in the first trimester was 70.4%, 16.1% and 2.0%, respectively. Multiple adjusted analysis showed that women who started the study in winter (p-value<0.001), spring (p-value<0.001) or autumn (p-value=0.028) presented a longitudinal increase in 25(OH)D concentrations, while women that started during summer did not. Increase of 1,25(OH)2D concentrations over time in women with insufficient vitamin D (50-75 nmol/L) at baseline was higher compared to women with sufficient vitamin D (≥75 nmol/L) (p-value=0.006). The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 20.1%, 14.7% and 7.8% during first, second and third trimester, respectively and the probability of depressive symptoms decreased throughout pregnancy (p-value=0.005). Women with higher concentrations of 25(OH)D in the first trimester had a lower odds ratio of depressive symptoms during pregnancy (OR=0.98; 95%CI: 0.96-0.99, p-value=0.047). In conclusion, there was a seasonal variation of 25(OH)D during pregnancy. Women with insufficient vitamin D status presented greater longitudinal increases in the concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D in comparison to women with sufficiency. Women presented high prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester and the probability of depressive symptoms decreased throughout pregnancy. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D in early pregnancy were inversely associated with occurrence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy.
Keywords: Vitamin D;depression;tropical country;cohort;pregnancy

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Title: Food Standards in the Pre-Management Period and its Association with the Variation of Series Lipids During Gesture: Prospective Study
Author: ILANA ESHRIQUI OLIVEIRA
Conclusion Paper: DISSERTATION
Abbreviation: OLIVEIRA, I. E.
Date of Defense: 25/01/2017
Abstract: Introduction: During pregnancy, physiological adaptations occur, resulting in an increase in serum lipids. Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with adults lipid profile, however, studies conducted during pregnancy are scarce. Objective: To verify the association between pre-pregnancy DP and blood lipid variations during pregnancy. Methods: This is a prospective cohort conducted at the Municipal Health Center Heitor Beltrão, in Rio de Janeiro. The dependent variables [total cholesterol (TC); low (LDL-c) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and triglycerides (TG)] were evaluated in 198 women at 1st trimester [5th-13th gestational weeks (GW)] and 186 at 2nd (20th-26th GW) and 3rd (30th-36th GW) trimesters. A food frequency questionnaire was administered at baseline (5th-13th GW) to evaluate the dietary intake during the six months prior to pregnancy. The reduced rank regression (RRR) method was used to derive the DP. The predictor variables were represented by the food groups (g/day), and the response variables by dietary fiber density (g/kcal), dietary energy density (kcal/g) and the percent energy from saturated fat. The sample general characteristics were described in mean (standard deviation) and frequency. Crude and adjusted linear mixed-effects regression models (β, CI 95%) were performed to account for confounders [age, education, parity, leisure time physical activity before pregnancy, pre-gestational BMI, smoking and quadratic GW] and mediators [Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) e weight gain] on the association between DP and blood lipids. Interaction terms between DP and gestational age were tested. Results: Three pre-pregnancy dietary patterns were identified: ‘Fast food and candies’, ‘Vegetables and dairy’ and ‘Beans, bread and fat’. Together, the three patterns explained 20.3% and 77.4% of the predictor and response variables, respectively. ‘Fast food and candies’ was positively associated with TG (β=4.961; 95%CI=0.945-8.977; P=0.015). In the HDL-c rate of change prediction, significant interactions were observed between both ‘Fast food and candies’ and ‘Vegetables and dairy’ patterns and gestational age [(β=-0.053; 95%CI=-0.101- -0.004; P=0.035) and (β=0.055; 95%CI=-0.002-0.112; P=0.060), respectively]. The ‘Beans, bread and fat’ pattern was not associated with blood lipids. The associations remained significant and the regression coefficients changed less than 6% after the inclusion of potential mediators in the adjusted model. Conclusion: Pre-pregnancy DP were associated with gestational blood lipids, i.e. as higher the score of Fast food and candies pattern, higher was TG and lower was HDL-c rate of change during pregnancy; while the higher the score of Vegetables and dairy pattern, the higher the HDL-c rate of change over GW. HOMA-IR and weight gain presented a small mediating effect on the association of pre-pregnancy DP and blood lipids.
Keywords: Dietary pattern, pregnancy, lipids, cohort, reduced rank regression.

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Sample Description
Sample Description